Ingenio Nuestra Señora del Carmen, Frigiliana

Ingenio Nuestra Señora del Carmen

Ingenio Nuestra Señora del Carmen, with Mudéjar-style decorations on the façade

Date

25 April 2014
Location

Frigiliana, Andalucía, Spain

36.79079141, -3.89538284

Information

El Ingenio (the mill), or La Casa Solariega de los Condes (the ancestral home of the counts), in Frigiliana was built in the late 16th century for the Manrique de Lara family, Lords of Frigiliana since 1508, with building materials coming from a destroyed Moorish castle. The 5th Lord created a sugar cane plantation and established the sugar mill. The building still houses a molasses factory — the last of its kind in Europe.

 

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Torre del Río de la Miel

Torre del Río del la Miel

Torre del Río del la Miel

Date

24 April 2014
Location

Río de la Miel, Andalucía, Spain

36.75034094, -3.81188904

Information

A series of Martello towers situated on the cliff tops along the shores around Nerja formed part of a larger network of coastal defences in the Province of Málaga. These were built in the years following the Morisco rebellion of Alpujarras in 1567 — the final Islamic battle in Spain — when there was the danger of pirate attacks from North Africa. The remains of the tower at the Río de la Miel stand precariously on the low cliff between the secluded beaches Playa del Molino de Papel (named after the nearby former Paper Mill) and the Playa de las Alberquillas, 5.5 km east of Nerja.

 

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Molino de Papel, Río de la Miel

The Paper Mill, below the Río de la Miel viaducts of the N-340 coastal road and the A-7 (E-15 'Mediterranean Motorway')

Molino de Papel (The Paper Mill), below the Río de la Miel viaducts of the N-340 coastal road and the A-7 (E-15 ‘Mediterranean Motorway’), with Cerro de la Puerta (524 m) in the background

Date

24 April 2014
Location

Río de la Miel, Andalucía, Spain

36.7530365, -3.81436353

Information

Mr Manuel Centurión Guerrero de Torres (1732-1800) was governor of Guyana (present day Guiana), High and Low Orinoco and the Black River during the reign of Carlos the III. When he returned to Spain in 1775 he was commissioned by the king to set up several factories in the kingdom of Granada. In Nerja he built a three wheel paper mill run by two water wheels powered by the water of the “Río de la Miel” (Honey River).

Only a hole remains where his coat of arms was originally situated above the main entrance door.

This building has been altered with regard to the original structure and even though it appears visibly deteriorated, a good part of the hydraulic system has been conserved as well as numerous rooms that have been used subsequently for storage, wood piling and a stable.

This building is lived in at the present time.

 — Junta de Andalucía information board

The mill was taken over by Manuel’s son Luis Centurión y Sevilla in 1800 and subsequently underwent a number of changes of ownership until ceasing operation in the late 19th century. The property was acquired in 1930 by the Larios company and used for agricultural purposes.

 

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Pico del Cielo

Summit of Pico del Cielo (1508 m), looking towards Nerja

Summit of Pico del Cielo (1508 m), looking towards Nerja

Date

23 April 2014
Location

Sierra de Enmedio, Andalucía, Spain

36.80483778, -3.81504704

Information

Pico del Cielo (1508 m) is located in the Parque Natural Sierras de Tejeda, Almijara y Alhama in Andalucía. With its summit being only 6 km from the sea, the peak dominates the skyline to the north-east of the town of Nerja.

 

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Ingenio Azucarero de San José, Nerja

Ingenio Azucarero de San José

Ingenio Azucarero de San José

Date

23 April 2014
Location

Nerja, Andalucía, Spain

36.74495656, -3.88500719

Information

The Ingenio Azucarero de San José (St Joseph Sugar Mill) in Nerja was built in 1870 by a company formed by three local industrialists: brothers Vicente and Antonio Martínez Manescau and Gabriel Rodríguez Navas. It was acquired three years later by the Larios family and it was to become the most important of the sugar factories in Nerja. But by 1968 the mill was no longer profitable and was closed. It was sold by the Larios sugar company in 1976 and was thereafter used as a training centre and also for community purposes. In 1985 the facility was renovated and converted into a state secondary school (El Instituto de Educacíon Secundaria El Chaparil). As part of the re-development project three of the mill buildings – the grinding, cooking and boiler houses – were demolished and others were converted for school use. The molasses shed became the assembly hall, for example, and the store house the gym.

 

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Mudéjar Minaret, Daimalos

Torre Daimalos (Mudéjar minaret)

Torre Daimalos (Mudéjar minaret)

Date

19 April 2014
Location

Daimalos, Arenas, Andalucía, Spain

36.82100855, -4.03056118

Information

The Alminar Mudéjar (Mudejar minaret) in Daimalos, Arenas, constructed in the 13th century, is one of Spain’s oldest and best preserved minarets dating from the Moorish occupation of the Iberian peninsula. It now forms the tower of the church Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, which was built on the site of the original mosque.

 

Torrox Costa

Balcón del Mediterráneo

Balcón del Mediterráneo

Date

17 April 2014
Location

Torrox Costa, Andalucía, Spain

36.72709131, -3.95881683

Information

The viewing platform El Balcón del Mediterráneo, situated at the eastern end of the Playa de las Lindes in Torrox Costa, is cantilevered over a Roman archaeological site. The foundations are visible of a salting factory and necropolis. This was the location of a Roman plant for the production of salted fish and garum, a sauce made from fish guts. The factory was abandoned in the 4th or 5th century was then used as a family mausoleum. There are also further Roman remains next to the lighthouse El Faro de Torrox.

 

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Ingenio Azucarero Nuestra Señora del Carmen, Torre del Mar

The steam engine restored by the local authorities and put on display in 1998 in front of Casa Larios as a monument to the sugar industry was originally acquired in 1900 by José Larios and served in the Torre del Mar mill for decades.

The steam engine restored by the local authorities and put on display in 1998 in front of Casa Larios as a monument to the sugar industry was originally acquired in 1900 by José Larios and served in the Torre del Mar mill for decades.

Date

17 April 2014
Location

Torre del Mar, Andalucía, Spain

36.74678678, -4.08845224

Information

In 1845 Galician entrepreneur Ramón de la Sagra built Spain’s first industrialised sugar mill in Torre del Mar in Andalucía, an innovation that, although it led to his ruin, was to herald a new era in the cultivation of sugar cane, a crop that had been introduced to the Mediterranean coast of Spain by the Arabs in the 10th century. The production of sugar in the coastal areas of Andalucía had been in decline during the 18th and early 19th centuries in the face of competition from plantations in the Americas. The Industrial Revolution was, however, to transform the cultivation and processing of sugar into one of the region’s most economically important sectors.

La Sagra leased the grounds of an old sugar plant, built in 1796 by José García Navarette and powered by mules, where he erected his new factory, La Fábrica de Torre del Mar. But his project ultimately failed, having been beset by a number of misfortunes: frost damage to crops in 1846; machinery acquired from Belgium lost in a shipwreck; and also the fact that he was unable to use the Derosne method of extraction. Exclusive rights to the latter — which involved the use of steam to cook the juice from the sugar cane and also centrifugal separation of sucrose and molasses — had been obtained by his former business associates, with whom he had parted company on account of their mistrust of the social dimension of La Sagra’s project.

La Sagra sold the mill in 1847 to Juan Nepomuceno Enríquez and it was acquired in 1852 by the Larios family, who re-developed it as the Ingenio Azucarero Nuestra Señora del Carmen (the Virgen del Carmen Sugar Mill), transforming it into the most important sugar plant in the Andalucian coast. The Larios sugar company owned the facility until 1976. It finally closed in 1992, at which time it was operated by SAMESA (Sociedad Azucarera del Mediterráneo S.A.).

In February 2014 it was announced that Vélez Málaga council was completing its troubled restoration of the Virgen del Carmen sugar mill in a development phase costing €217,000. The renovated main mill building is to house a museum dedicated to the history of the sugar-cane industry. It will also, controversially, accommodate a business school. Original plans for a sugar museum (Museo del Azúcar) had been overturned in 2012 when the council signed a deal to create a business management centre in the premises. A deal had been agreed between the local authorities and SAMESA in 1993 for the demolition of the plant’s secondary buildings and the renovation of its main building as the Museo del Azúcar. A lot of the industrial heritage had, however, been lost as most of the machinery had by then already been sold for scrap. The contract for the museum development had been awarded in 2003, and then again in 2005. By 2011, €2.3m had been invested and the work was two years behind schedule amid disputes between the council and the developers.

 

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Cueva de Nerja

Sala de Belén

Sala de Belén

Date

16 April 2014
Location

Nerja, Andalucía, Spain

36.7613274, -3.84542601

Information

Nerja Caves were discovered in 1959 by five young locals from Maro who ventured into the complex in pursuit of bats. The caves are situated in the lower slopes of the Sierra de Almijara mountains to the east of Nerja and have been formed over the past 5 million years by the action of rainwater seeping into the ground and dissolving limestone and other rocks. Many works of prehistoric art have been discovered in the system of caverns. About a third of the site is accessible to the public and is visited by 500,000 people each year, making it one of Spain’s most visited Historic and Artistic Monuments.

 

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Ingenio de Maro, Nerja

Ingenio de Maro

Ingenio de Maro

Date

15 April 2014
Location

Maro, Andalucía, Spain

36.75685375, -3.84242971

Information

Built in 1585, the Ingenio de Maro (Maro Mill), also known as the Ingenio de Armengol, was the first sugar mill to be constructed in the area. Lawyer Felipe de Armengol had purchased land from the Lord of Maro, Juan de Gricio Herrera in 1582 and used it for a sugar-cane plantation. Armengol also pioneered a route across the Sierra de Almijara mountains from Maro to Granada. The mill continued in production until it burned down in a fire in the 1860s, when it was owned by the Pérez del Pulgar family.

 

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Acueducto del Águila, Nerja

Acueducto del Águila

Acueducto del Águila

Date

15 April 2014
Location

Maro, Nerja, Andalucía, Spain

36.75811011, -3.85003129

Information

The Acueducto del Águila (Eagle Aqueduct) was built around 1880 to serve the irrigation needs of the sugar-cane plantation at the nearby Azucarera San Joaquín sugar mill. The four-tier brick-built structure spanning the Barranco de Maro (Maro Ravine) comprises 37 arches and is surmounted by a Mudejar-style spire with double-headed eagle weather vane. The aqueduct was damaged by shelling during the Spanish Civil War and in 2011 underwent a major programme of renovation. It is still in use today, carrying water for irrigation from Maro to neighbouring agricultural land.

 

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Azucarera San Joaquín, Nerja

Azucarera San Joaquín

Azucarera San Joaquín

Date

14 April 2014
Location

Maro, Nerja, Andalucía, Spain

36.75924219, -3.85438454

Information

The sugar mill and distillery Azucarera San Joaquín, also known as Azucarera de las Mercedes, was built in 1884 by Francisco Cantarero and owned by Granada lawyer Joaquín Pérez del Pulgar y Ruiz de Molina. The mill complex, situated 1 km to the west of the centre of Maro in Andalucía, included a sugar cane plantation, which was irrigated from an oval reservoir fed from the nearby purpose-built Acueducto del Águila (Eagle Aqueduct). In addition to the processing sheds, there were also 24 living units for the mill workers. The mill was still owned by Joaquín Pérez’s family by 1918. After closure for a number of years, it was then acquired by the sugar company Sociedad Larios, who operated it from 1930 to 1950.

 

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Aeropuerto de Fuerteventura

Aeropuerto de Fuerteventura

Aeropuerto de Fuerteventura

Date

6 April 2013
Location

El Matorral, Fuerteventura

28.453053°N, 13.869381°W

Information

Fuerteventura’s first airport was the military aerodrome built near Tefía in the 1940s. This opened to commercial traffic in 1959, but was superseded in 1962 by a new airport at Los Estancos, the latter’s site having been chosen for its proximity to the island’s capital. However, increasing levels of demand coupled with local wind problems led to this site in turn giving way to the present location at El Matorral, 5km south of Puerto del Rosario. The airport at El Matorral opened in 1969 and its facilities were expanded in 1978 and again 1994. Further expansion work has recently been completed on the terminal, allowing it to double its passenger capacity. In 2012 the airport handled 38,000 flights and 4.4 million passengers.

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Parque Natural de Corralejo II – Las Grandes Playas

Grandes Playas, Parque Natural de Corralejo

Grandes Playas, Parque Natural de Corralejo

Date

5 April 2013
Location

Corralejo, Fuerteventura

28.704309°N, 13.836488°W

Information

Las Grandes Playas is a 3.5km-long group of beaches in the Parque Natural de Corralejo. This stretch of Fuerteventuran coastline has at its centre two hotels – the Clubhotel Riu Oliva Beach and the Riu Palace Tres Islas. These are the only two buildings in the Parque Natural. The fine sandy beaches together with the near constant winds make this a very popular spot for water sports such as surfing, windsurfing and kiteboarding.

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Parque Natural de Corralejo I

Dunas de Corralejo

Dunas de Corralejo

Date

5 April 2013
Location

Corralejo, Fuerteventura

28.704309°N, 13.836488°W

Information

The Parque Natural de Corralejo is a desert zone in the northeast corner of Fuerteventura. Its field of sand dunes and white sandy beaches stretches some 8km from Corralejo south to Montaña Rojo. Its fine sand, formed by erosion of sea shells, lies over extensive volcanic badlands (‘maplaís’). The area, covering over 2,600 hectares, was designated a Natural Park in 1994. This superseded the previous classification from 1982, which also included the Isla de Lobos — now a Parque Natural in its own right. The park is also part of a bird reserve (Zona de Especial Protección para las Aves).

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Salinas del Carmen, Fuerteventura

Museo de la Sal (Salt Museum)

Museo de la Sal (Salt Museum)

Date

4 April 2013
Location

Caleta de Fuste, Fuerteventura

28.367160°N, 13.871441°W

Information

The production of sea salt was an industry that employed hundreds of people in the eastern Canary Islands in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, however, Salinas del Carmen is the only working salt works to survive in Fuerteventura. The works, located 3km south of Caleta de Fuste, was originally known as Salinas de Hondurilla and dates back to the 19th century. It was rebuilt around 1910 and was acquired in the late 1970s by the island authorities, who restored the site and built El Museo de la Sal (The Salt Museum) there. The sea-spray salt produced at the works using traditional methods is now marketed internationally as a gourmet product. It is lower in sodium than conventional salt and higher in minerals such as magnesium, potassium and sulphates.

The production process starts with waves driven by the trade winds battering against rocks on the shore. The resulting sea spray, with increased concentrations of minerals, overspills into a receiving area, from where it is channelled into a series of tanks (‘cocederos’) to be warmed by the heat of the sun. From there, the heated brine is then allowed to run down into the evaporation tanks (‘tajos’), where the salt gradually crystallises in a thin layer on the surface of the water. The tanks are stirred twice a day and once almost all the water has evaporated the salt is raked up into mounds to drain at the side of the tanks before being taken to the salt store.

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